Lada Niva 4 Wheel Drive
Reviewed by Unique Cars and Parts
Our Rating: 1
The Niva (2121) was Lada's (VAZ/AvtoVAZ) first non-Fiat based model. Much of its mechanicals were carried over from the Fiat based Lada models, though the body, four-wheel drive system, and front suspension
were designed by Lada.
Production began in 1977
and continues today (as of 2008) with only minor changes to the engine, rear hatch design, and interior trim levels. In basic form, the Niva has a carbureted 1.6-litre overhead cam four-cylinder petrol engine producing 54 kW (72 hp) and 126 N·m (93 ft·lbf), a four or five-speed manual transmission
, and full-time four-wheel drive.
There are no locking hubs and the transfer case can be locked on the fly. The original Niva had a maximum speed of around 130 km/h (80 mph), and could cruise at 90 km/h (56 mph) while consuming petrol at a respectable 8.25 litres/100km. Its towing capacity was rated for up to 860 kg (1900 lb).
A 1.7-litre petrol engine was introduced later in production, as was fuel injection
supplied by General Motors. Around this time the rear hatch was revised to have a lower opening. In some markets a 1.9 litre Peugeot diesel powered Niva was sold.
Coil springs are located at each of the four wheels, and suspension
is independent in front, whereas the rear axle is a 5 link live-type, with ratios between 3.90 and 4.30 depending on the model and market. Ground clearance is good at 235 mm (9.25 in) and water 510 mm (20 in) deep can be negotiated.
(disc front, drum rear) are servo-assisted dual-circuit style and the clutch is hydraulic. The turning circle, at 36.25' is adequate, while the centre of gravity is exceptional. Cargo space is 0.48 m³ (17 ft³), or 1.33 m³ (47 ft³) with the rear seats folded down. A spare tyre
is located in the engine bay under the bonnet, and as with all Ladas, a 21 piece toolkit is also supplied for do-it-yourself roadside repairs. The latter feature is considered a useful and practical feature by off-road fans.
UK Lada Niva Cossack
During the 1980s local Lada importers in various markets made their own upgrades to help compete with more modern SUVs. In the UK the Cossack
model featured large body decals, roof rails, running boards, 15" alloy wheels
, and on some versions a sunroof, steel bullbars, spotlights, a rear-mounted spare tyre
and semi-bucket seats. Other markets' importers made similar upgrades and many were also called Cossack
In 1995, Lada UK introduced a face-lifted version of the Niva Cossack and renamed the basic model as the Hussar
. Whereas the Hussar had the original 1977
trim, the new UK Cossack featured a new Rover-designed grille and other body kit items, and gained soft nudge-bars at the front in deference to public opinion against bullbars. Both models received the same new 1.7-litre engine and a new deeper tailgate which extended the rear opening to the level of the bumper - a vast improvement over the original model's high lip. Official Niva imports to the UK ceased in 1997 due to the importers having difficulty in sourcing the GM fuel injection
unit required to satisfy ever-tightening UK emissions regulations
In 1974, when VAZ 2121 development was almost finished, the engineers from Tolyatti began working on an amphibian off-roader, VAZ 2122 'Reka' ('River') based on VAZ-2121 'Niva' underpinnings. It was supposed to offer the car to the Soviet Ministry of Defence. Six evolutions of prototypes were built, much development work has been done. The car was tested in experimental military unit, on the proving grounds belonging to Ministry of Defence, and in the Turkmenian desert. VAZ-2122 received very positive feedback, and in 1987 VAZ finished all development work, and the car was ready for production. By the end of the eighties, the Ministry of Defence did not have the financial resources necessary for the mass production of VAZ-2122. As a result, VAZ-2122 did not see series production.
Uses of the Niva
In Russia and Europe the Niva has been used as an ambulance, a military vehicle, and by various police forces (eg Slovakia) and utility companies (eg Manx Electricity Board). Transmanche-Link, the commercial consortium that built the Channel Tunnel between England and France, used a fleet of 45 Nivas to aid in the enormous project. Each Niva accumulated in excess of 70,000 off-road kilometres during its employment, and after construction had been completed in 1993, the fleet was sold off to a British dealer.
In Brazil, during the early 1990s, Niva was the best-selling off-road vehicle. In fact, the Niva was so cheap, that even with the 85% importation value tax, the Niva was less expensive than Brazilian cars such as the Envemo or Gurgel. It sold so much more than the Gurgel Carajás, that Gurgel discontinued it in January, 1991. The Niva was the first imported 4X4 in the Brazilian market, following then-Brazilian president Fernando Collor's permission of the importation of foreign vehicles in 1990. In the Brazilian market, a used 1991 Niva, in good condition, costs about US$3,000/R$6,000.
Competition and higher importation value taxes forced the Niva to be retired from the Brazilian market. Even so, thousands of Niva's remain in use in Brazil. Lada Niva was the first imported car to have success in the Brazilian market. Its low price and reliability were responsible for the end of production of Gurgel jeeps in 1991. Between 1990 and 1993 it was the best selling jeep in Brazil. Nivas have been driven on land, up mountains, through mud, and underwater.